Eight undescribed species of Claviceps were recognized from the combinations of molecular and morphological characters. The teleomorph was observed only for Claviceps setariicola. Phylogenetic affinities of the new species inside the genus were revealed by a 5.8S-ITS-28S nrDNA analysis. Claviceps chloridicola, C. tenuispora, C. setariicola and C. setariiphila are related to C. maximensis; C. truncatispora is a sister species to C. pusilla. Claviceps clavispora and C. langdonii cluster with species colonizing maize and sorghum. The position of C. loudetiae is unclear. Comparisons with herbarium specimens showed C. setariicola as a well-established species on Setaria spp. in the southern USA. C. tenuispora was recorded on Cenchrus and Pennisetum in Brazil, USA, and Zimbabwe. C. setariiphila was found on S. geniculata in Brazil. C. chloridicola, C. loudetiae and C. truncatispora occurred in African savannas on Chloris, Loudetia, and Hyparrhenia spp., respectively. C. clavispora was found on Paspalum sp. and Urochloa sp. in Mexico and C. langdonii colonized Dichanthium spp. in the southern USA and probably in Mexico. The occurrence of C. pusilla on pearl millet in the USA (Texas) is reported and the record of C. sulcata on Urochloa brizantha in Brazil is confirmed by nrDNA sequence comparison with an African herbarium specimen. No alkaloids were detected in sclerotia and/or sphacelia of the new species.
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