Cretaceous records of Palaeontinidae from China are discussed and summarized on the basis of newly-discovered materials from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Inner Mongolia, Liaoning and Hebei. The diagnostic characters for Ilerdocossus, I. fengningensis, Yanocossus and Miracossus are revised. A new species, I. ningchengensis sp. nov., is described from the Yixian Formation of Inner Mongolia. The key to the recognized species of Cretaceous Palaeontinidae from China is presented. Yanocossus and Miracossus probably form a monophyletic group, which is the sister group of the "Ilerdocossus-complex". Cretaceous palaeontinids except for Pachypsyche, Montsecocossus and Cicadomorpha probably form a monophyletic group. The extinction of Palaeontinidae in latest Early Cretaceous time probably resulted from the rise of primitive birds and mammals and the displacement of palaeontinid host-plants. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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