Goal setting is an “open” theory built on inductive findings from empirical research. The present paper briefly summarizes this theory. Emphasis is then given to findings that have been obtained in the present millennium with regard to (1) the high performance cycle, (2) the role of goals as mediators of personality effects on performance, (3) personality variables as moderators of goal effects on performance, the effect of (4) distal, (5) proximal, and (6) learning goals on performance on tasks that are complex for people, (7) the ways in which priming affects the impact of a goal, (8) the interrelationship between goal setting and affect, and (9) the results of goal setting by teams. Potential directions for research on goal setting in the workplace are suggested with regard to goal abandonment, perfectionism, an employee's age, subconscious goals, and the relationship between goals and knowledge.
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