The development and initial validation of a new scale of balanced time
perspective is reported. A balanced time perspective is defined here as
a frequent and equal tendency to think about both one's past and future
in positive ways. Sixty-seven men and 79 women ranging in age from 18-46
years (M = 21.3, SD. = 4.42) completed the Balanced Time Perspective
Scale (BTPS) and measures of happiness, well-being, self-esteem, and two
subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Principal
components analysis (PCA) of the BTPS resulted in a Past orientation (14
items, alpha = .88) and a Future orientation (14 items, alpha = .92).
Persons scoring below the median on both the Past and Future formed the.
time restrictive category; persons below the median on the Past but
above the median on the Future formed the futurist category; persons
below the median on the Future but above the median on the Past formed
the reminiscers category; persons above the median on both the Past and
Future formed the time expansive (i.e., balanced) category. As
predicted, persons in the time expansive category scored higher on
happiness, well-being, and self-esteem.
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