Can religion replace liberal democracy in providing the ideological glue that holds a nation together? Based on interviews and case studies in the Middle East, South Asia, and elsewhere, this essay explores the justification for a modern religious state. Religion plays the same role as secular ideologies in providing a theoretical base for nationalism. Religion and liberal ideas are competitive in both the West and the Third World. Finally, this competition has been bridged by the rise of a potent new synthesis between the nation-state and religion.
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