Nigeria 2008: Results from the Demographic and Health Survey

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The results of the 1993 Demographic and Health Survey for Ghana are provided in tables and text. The sample included 4562 women, 15-49 years old, and 1302 men, 15-59 years old. Topics covered include household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, fertility, contraceptive usage and knowledge, proximate determinants of fertility (marriage patterns including polygyny, first marriage age, age at first intercourse, postpartum amenorrhea, menopause), fertility preferences, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, maternal and child nutrition, and knowledge of AIDS. Information is provided on research methods and sampling errors. The appendix also includes the questionnaire. The total fertility rate was 5.5 in 1993 and 6.4 in 1988: 6.4 in rural and 4.0 in urban areas. Fertility was 6.7 for women with no education and 2.9 for women with at least a secondary education. The proportion never married remained at 20%. Legal marriages declined from 65% in 1988 to 59% in 1993. Informal unions increased from 6% to 12%. The median age at first marriage was 18.9 years. 56% desired an additional child compared to 69% in 1988. 34% did not desire any more children: 59% of women with a secondary education compared to 16% with no education. The ideal family size declined to 4.7 children. 3 out of every 5 women either desired family planning or used family planning. 20% of women were current contraceptive users. 39% had unmet need for contraception: 25% for spacing and 13% for limiting. 22% of women 15-19 years old by the time of the survey had started childbearing. 26% of rural teenagers and 16% of urban teenagers already had their first child. 19% of all women were current users of contraception: 9% with a modern method and 10% with a traditional method. 20% of married women and 34% of married men used contraception: 10% of women using a modern method and 20% of men using a modern method. 8% of women used periodic abstinence, and 10% of married used the condom. 87% of mothers received some prenatal care. 57% were home deliveries, and under 60% were delivered by trained personnel. Infant mortality was 66/1000 live births (82/1000 in rural areas), and under-five mortality was 119/1000 (149/1000 in rural areas). 96% of infants 12-13 months old were still breast fed, but only 2% of infants 0-2 months old were exclusively breast fed.

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