A facile approach for material-independent surface modification using norepinephrine was investigated. pH-induced oxidative polymerization of norepinephrine forms adherent films on vastly different types of material surfaces of noble metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, ceramics, shape-memory alloys, and synthetic polymers. Secondary biochemical functionalizations such as immobilization of proteins and growth of biodegradable polyester on the poly(norepinephrine) films were demonstrated.
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