In 1976, the detection of estrogen-receptor expression in melanomas ushered in the era of targeted therapy in melanoma, although we did not use that term back then.(1) In 1992, Cocconi et al. found that dacarbazine plus tamoxifen provided a higher response rate and longer survival than dacarbazine, but only in women.(2) Subsequently, whether melanoma cells express estrogen receptors was questioned, and the efficacy of tamoxifen could not be confirmed. Since then, the drug has not been used to treat melanoma. However, molecular analysis of tumors has revealed specific growth-promoting pathways in human cancers that have become targets for therapy. BRAF . . .
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