Novel disposable bismuth-sputtered electrodes for the determination of trace metals by stripping voltammetry

  • Kokkinos C
  • Economou A
  • Raptis I
 et al. 
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Abstract

This work describes a novel type of bismuth electrode for stripping voltammetry based on coating a silicon substrate with a thin bismuth film by means of sputtering. The bismuth-based sensors were characterized by optical methods (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and as well as by linear sweep voltammetry. Subsequently, the electrodes were tested for the detection of low concentrations of trace metals (Cd(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II)) by stripping voltammetry. Well-formed stripping peaks were observed for trace concentrations of the target analytes demonstrating "proof-of-principle" for these sensors. This type of electrochemical device, utilizing thin-film technology for the formation of the bismuth film, holds promise for future applications in trace metal analysis. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Bismuth electrodes
  • Sputtering
  • Stripping analysis
  • Trace analysis

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Authors

  • Christos Kokkinos

  • Anastasios Economou

  • Constantinos E. Efstathiou

  • Thanasis Speliotis

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