A substantial body of evidence has accumulated linking an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A multitude of novel risk factors related to decreased kidney function might interact with the renal and systemic immune systems involved in renal injury and repair to participate in accelerated atherogenesis (Immune inflammation-Renal injury-Atherosclerosis--the IRA Paradigm). In this review, we will discuss several of these novel risk factors and present the potential for the role of the immune-inflammatory system in accelerated atherosclerosis of kidney disease.
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