As receiver performance will be degraded by carrier frequency offset (CFO), Doppler shift, and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a novel estimator that jointly considers CFO, Doppler shift, and SNR is proposed in this paper. The proposed algorithm uses the Fourier transform (FT) to calculate the power spectral density of time-varying channels through channel estimates. Then, a new periodogram technique is utilized to estimate CFO, Doppler shift, and SNR together. Unlike conventional methods in sinusoid estimation, which rely on the peak-value search of a periodogram, this paper exploits the hypothesis test to address the random frequency modulation of time-varying channels. Furthermore, to optimize estimation performance, a theoretical analysis is also provided on the influences of some key parameters, e.g., the length of the signal processed with fast FT , the amplitude threshold value, the SNR dynamic range, and the velocity dynamic range. Correspondingly, the appropriate key parameters are chosen according to this analysis and are validated by simulations. The results are consistent with our analysis and present high accuracy over a wide range of velocities and SNRs.
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