We studied the phylogenetic relationships among Japanese Leptocarabus ground beetles, which show extensive trans-species polymorphisms in mitochondrial gene genealogies. Simultaneous analysis of combined nuclear data with partial sequences from the long-wavelength rhodopsin, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and 28S rRNA genes resolved the relationships among the five species, although separate analyses of these genes provided topologies with low resolution. For both the nuclear gene tree resulting from the combined data from four genes and a mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene tree, we applied a Bayesian divergence time estimation using a common calibration method to identify mitochondrial introgression events that occurred after speciation. Three mitochondrial lineages shared by two or three species were likely subject to introgression due to interspecific hybridization because the coalescent times for these lineages were much shorter than the corresponding speciation times estimated from nuclear gene sequences. We demonstrated that when species phylogeny is fully resolved with nuclear gene sequence data, comparative analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees can be used to infer introgressive hybridization events that might cause trans-species polymorphisms in mitochondrial gene trees. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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