Nutritional factors, cognitive decline, and dementia

  • A. D
  • F. P
  • C. C
 et al. 
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Abstract

Nutritional factors and nutritional deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with cognitive impairment. Most of the evidence is based on cross-sectional studies, which cannot prove whether a nutritional deficit is the cause or the consequence of an impaired cognitive status. In fact, cognitive impairment, in turn, can determine changes in dietary habits and consequent nutritional deficiencies. We reviewed clinical and epidemiological studies from January 1983 to June 2004. Several cross-sectional and fewer prospective studies reported an association between dietary or supplemental intake of antioxidants and protection from cognitive decline and dementia. There are negative reports as well and some methodological biases might have affected the consistencies across studies. Deficiencies of several B vitamins have been associated with cognitive dysfunction in many observational studies. More recently, deficiencies of folate (B9) and cobalamine (B12) have been studied in relation to hyperhomocysteinemia as potential determinants of cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A small number of studies assessed the association between intake of macronutrients and cognitive function or dementia. Among the others, the intake of fatty acids and cholesterol has received particular attention. Although the results are not always consistent, most studies have reported a protective role of dietary intakes of poly- and mono-unsaturated fatty acids against cognitive decline and AD. We point out that well designed intervention studies are warranted in order to establish specific levels of micro- and macronutrient deficiencies and to set general recommendations for the population. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *Alzheimer disease
  • *cognitive defect
  • *malnutrition
  • Aged
  • Animalia
  • Animals
  • Behavioral and Mental Disorders
  • Behavioral biology - Human behavior
  • Biochemistry studies - General
  • Biochemistry studies - Lipids
  • Biochemistry studies - Sterols and steroids
  • Biochemistry studies - Vitamins
  • Chordata
  • Chordates
  • Common
  • Epidemiology
  • Gerontology
  • Hominidae
  • Human Medicine
  • Humans
  • Mammalia
  • Mammals
  • Medical Sciences
  • Metabolic Disease
  • Metabolism - Metabolic disorders
  • Nervous System
  • Nervous System Disease
  • Nervous system - Pathology
  • Nervous system - Physiology and biochemistry
  • Neurology
  • Nutrition
  • Nutrition - General studies
  • Nutrition - Malnutrition and obesity
  • Nutritional Disease
  • Population Studies
  • Primates
  • Psychiatry
  • Psychiatry - Psychopathology
  • Public health: epidemiology - Miscellaneous
  • Public health: epidemiology - Organic diseases and
  • Vertebrata
  • Vertebrates
  • alpha tocopherol
  • antioxidant
  • antioxidant activity
  • ascorbic acid
  • beta carotene
  • clinical trial
  • cobalamin
  • dementia
  • dietary intake
  • elderly care
  • fish
  • flavonoid
  • folic acid
  • homocysteine
  • human
  • hyperhomocysteinemia
  • linoleic acid
  • monounsaturated fatty acid
  • nutrition
  • nutritional status an
  • polyunsaturated fatty acid
  • priority journal
  • psychodynamics and t
  • review
  • vitamin deficiency
  • vitamin supplementation

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Authors

  • Del Parigi A.

  • Panza F.

  • Capurso C.

  • Angelo [Author Del Parigi Reprint Author; E-mail: angelo.delparigi@pfizer.com]

  • Francesco [Author] Panza

  • Cristiano [Author] Capurso

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