Immobilized enzymes have found numer- ous applications in analytical, clinical, environmental and industrial chemistry. However, in most cases, immobilization leads to partial or total loss of activity. It is widely believed that the loss in activity is due to attachment of proteins on the immobilization support through several amino acid residues. This results in a random orientation of the immobilized protein and in increased structural deformation due to multi-point attachment. Several researchers have explored ways to orient proteins on surfaces, such that orderly orga- nization, single point attachment and accessibility of the active site (or binding site) are possible. This article reviews the various approaches available to achieve oriented immobilization of proteins and its applica- tions in several disciplines.
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