Author Summary In rice, flowering time affects the potential yield, the growing season and regional adaptability. Change in day length is a key seasonal cue for regulating flowering time in rice, a facultative short-day (SD) plant. The photoperiodic pathway of rice contains the evolutionarily conserved Hd1 - Hd3a module, which is homologous to the CO - FT module in the long-day (LD) plant Arabidopsis . In this work, we cloned a novel gene, HDR1 , that activates Hd1 and represses Ehd1 , thereby down-regulating the florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1 to postpone rice flowering. A protein associated with HDR1, OsK4, was also identified, and the resulting complex can interact with HD1 to phosphorylate HD1. We conclude that HDR1 is a novel transcriptional regulator of Hd1 that plays a crucial role in regulating flowering time via the photoperiodic pathway in rice.
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