Prosthetics and Orthotics International, vol. 35, issue 2 (2011) pp. 190-200
The osseointegration programme for upper extremity amputation started in Sweden in 1990, when a titanium fixture was first implanted into a thumb. This method has since been used for transhumeral and below-elbow amputation. The treatment involves two surgical procedures. During the first a titanium fixture is surgically attached to the skeleton, and a second procedure six months later involves a skin penetrating abutment to which the prosthesis is attached.
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