The structural stability of a protein requires a large number of interresidue interactions. The energetic contribution of these can be approximated by low-resolution force fields extracted from known structures, based on observed amino acid pairing frequencies. The summation of such energies, however, cannot be carried out for proteins whose structure is not known or for intrinsically unstructured proteins. To overcome these limitations, we present a novel method for estimating the total pairwise interaction energy, based on a quadratic form in the amino acid composition of the protein. This approach is validated by the good correlation of the estimated and actual energies of proteins of known structure and by a clear separation of folded and disordered proteins in the energy space it defines. As the novel algorithm has not been trained on unstructured proteins, it substantiates the concept of protein disorder, i.e. that the inability to form a well-defined 3D structure is an intrinsic property of many proteins and protein domains. This property is encoded in their sequence, because their biased amino acid composition does not allow sufficient stabilizing interactions to form. By limiting the calculation to a predefined sequential neighborhood, the algorithm was turned into a position-specific scoring scheme that characterizes the tendency of a given amino acid to fall into an ordered or disordered region. This application we term IUPred and compare its performance with three generally accepted predictors, PONDR VL3H, DISOPRED2 and GlobPlot on a database of disordered proteins. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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