Paradox and Performance: Toward a Theory of Behavioral Complexity in Managerial Leadership

  • Denison D
  • Hooijberg R
  • Quinn R
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A paper explores the paradoxes and competing values inherent in leadership behavior. Scales for 8 leadership roles are developed, providing empirical data about 176 executives. The paper contributes to the theoretical understanding of the paradoxes of leadership and introduces the concept of behavioral complexity to understand leader behavior and integrate theoretical findings in the leadership literature.

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  • Daniel R. Denison

  • Robert Hooijberg

  • Robert E. Quinn

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