A previous microsatellite study pointed out a pos-sible parent-offspring relationship between 'Sangio-vese', the most widespread red grape cultivar in Italy, and 'Ciliegiolo', an ancient Tuscan variety. Testing 'Sangiovese' as a parent of 'Ciliegiolo', we searched for the putative other parent in our extensive, private and standardized database, but we did not find any candi-date. Testing 'Ciliegiolo' as a parent of 'Sangiovese', we found four candidate cultivars. After the analysis of 50 microsatellites, only one stood the paternity test and we established with a strong statistical support that 'San-giovese' is a progeny of 'Ciliegiolo' and 'Calabrese di Montenuovo', an obscure grapevine from Campania, Italy. This cultivar does not have a registered name and is supposed to have been introduced from Calabria. Among 180 additional local grape cultivars from Calab-ria, Campania or Tuscany, we did not find any match-ing variety. As a consequence, we propose to adopt the name 'Calabrese di Montenuovo' for this grape culti-var. In addition, we found relatives of 'Sangiovese' and 'Calabrese di Montenuovo' in Calabria, thus strongly suggesting a Calabrian origin for 'Calabrese di Mon-tenuovo' and indicating that 'Sangiovese' has ancestors and/or progenies in Tuscany and in Southern Italy. K e y w o r d s : Microsatellite, Vitis vinifera, kinship, fin-gerprinting, pedigree.
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