Pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory aspects of thrombosis in cancer

  • M. F
  • M. M
  • G. T
 et al. 
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Abstract

The relationship between increased clotting and malignancy is well recognized, though the bidirectional development of this association is often overlooked. In the challenging cancer biology, transforming genes often act in concert with numerous epigenetic factors, including hypoxia, inflammation, contact between blood and cancer cells, and emission of procoagulant vesicles from tumors, to determine a net imbalance of the hemostatic potential which is detectable by a variety of laboratory tests. Procoagulant factors, in particular, are intimately involved in all aspects of hemostatic, cell proliferation and cellular signalling systems. However, the biggest as yet unresolved question is why cancer patients develop thrombosis? Since the thrombus itself does not apparently contributes directly to the tumor biology, enhanced hemostasis activation in cancer patients may be interpreted according to the most recent biological evidences. Coagulation and cancer biology interact bidirectionally in a 'vicious cycle', in which greater tumor burden supplies greater procoagulants (tissue factor, cancer procoagulant) and thrombin, which would in turn act as strong promoters of cancer growth and spread. In this perspective, thrombosis may be interpreted as a epiphenomenon of an intricate an effective biological feedback to maintain or promote cancer progression. In this review article, we briefly analyze the pathogenesis, laboratory, clinical and therapeutic features of cancer and thrombosis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *cancer
  • *thrombosis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • *thrombosis/et [Etiology]
  • *thrombosis/pc [Prevention]
  • D dimer/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • acute leukemia
  • anticoagulant agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • anticoagulant agent/po [Oral Drug Administration]
  • antineoplastic agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • antithrombin/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • antivitamin K/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • asparaginase
  • bleeding/si [Side Effect]
  • blood clotting
  • blood clotting factor 5/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • blood clotting factor 8/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • blood clotting factor 9/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • blood flow
  • breast cancer/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • cancer growth
  • cancer incidence
  • cancer invasion
  • cancer procoagulant/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • cancer risk
  • cancer screening
  • catheter thrombosis
  • cell adhesion
  • cell migration
  • cell proliferation
  • clinical feature
  • clinical trial
  • dalteparin/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • dalteparin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • deep vein thrombosis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • diagnostic value
  • disease association
  • disseminated intravascular clotting
  • dosage schedule comparison XT - bleeding / side e
  • dose response
  • drug dose comparison
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • enoxaparin/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • enoxaparin/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • enoxaparin/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • enoxaparin/do [Drug Dose]
  • enoxaparin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • epigenetics
  • feedback system
  • fibrin degradation product/ec [Endogenous Compound
  • fibrinogen degradation product/ec [Endogenous Comp
  • fibrinogen/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • hemostasis
  • heparin induced thrombocytopenia/si [Side Effect]
  • heparin/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • heparin/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • heparin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • human
  • hypercoagulability
  • hypoxia
  • inflammation
  • laboratory test
  • low drug dose
  • low molecular weight heparin/ae [Adverse Drug Reac
  • low molecular weight heparin/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • low molecular weight heparin/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • low molecular weight heparin/do [Drug Dose]
  • low molecular weight heparin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • lung embolism/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • lymph node metastasis/co [Complication]
  • occult cancer
  • pathogenesis
  • plasminogen activator inhibitor 1/ec [Endogenous C
  • priority journal
  • prognosis
  • protein C/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • protein S/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • recurrence risk
  • review
  • risk reduction
  • signal transduction
  • tamoxifen
  • thrombin/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • thrombocytopenia/si [Side Effect]
  • thrombocytosis
  • thromboembolism/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • thromboembolism/pc [Prevention]
  • thrombogenicity
  • thromboplastin/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • tissue plasminogen activator/ec [Endogenous Compou
  • transactivator protein/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • tumor lysis syndrome
  • tumor vascularization
  • tumor volume
  • vascular endothelium
  • vein thrombosis
  • venous stasis
  • venous thromboembolism/di [Diagnosis]
  • venous thromboembolism/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • venous thromboembolism/pc [Prevention]
  • von Willebrand factor/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • warfarin/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • warfarin/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • warfarin/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • warfarin/do [Drug Dose]
  • warfarin/dt [Drug Therapy]

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Authors

  • Franchini M.

  • Montagnana M.

  • Targher G.

  • Manzato F.

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