The aim of this study was to identify the use and perceptions that the communities of Pedraza, Magdalena, Colombia give to Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua mexicana, Choloepus hoffmanni, Bradypus variegatus and Dasypus novemcinctus, with the purpose of gathering information to establish adequate awareness strategies. Semi-structured random surveys were made, taking into consideration people of different gender and depending on their availability and willingness. Three main topics were considered: a) knowledge, sightings and abundance; b) use; and c) conservation. One hundred people were surveyed, 78 of which were men. The most frequently and easily identified species were M. tridactyla and T. mexicana (27%), while the least known was C. hoffmanni (9%). The main identified threats were hunting for consumption in armadillos, human aggression for anteaters, and habitat destruction for sloths. Most surveyed persons expressed their willingness to participate in a conservation program for one of the five species. This study allows putting in evidence that the solution for the situation of the Xenarthra in the Pedraza municipality requires focal solutions for each species. There is a need for an awareness program for the general population, with emphasis towards children and teenagers. The need to include food security and improvement of the quality of life of residents in any future conservation program is emphasized due to the direct impact of these variables on the wild populations of xenarthrans.
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