In recent years, it has become evident that peroxisomes form part of the endomembrane system. Peroxisomes can form from the ER via a maturation process and they can multiply by growth and division, whereby the ER provides membrane for growth and ongoing fission (Figure 1). Until very recently, it was widely accepted that most peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) insert directly into peroxisomes, whereas a small subset of PMPs traffic via the ER. In this minireview, we focus mainly on PMP biogenesis, and highlight recent advances in peroxisomal matrix protein import, fission and segregation in yeast. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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