Viral phenotype, tropism, coreceptor usage, and envelope gene diversity were examined in blood isolates collected from 27 individuals at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease and tissue derived isolates from 10 individuals with AIDS. The majority (89%) of blood and all tissue HIV-1 isolates from all stages of infection were non-syncytium inducing and macrophage (M) tropic. Tropism and productive infection by HIV isolates in both monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) increased in advanced disease (HIV tropism for monocytes, 1 of 6 from categories I and II versus 11 of 21 [P = 0.05] from category IV and II [CD4 < 250]; and high-level replication in MDM, 1 of 6 from categories I and II versus 16 of 21 from categories IV and II [P = 0. 015]). There was a high level of replication of blood and tissue isolates in T lymphocytes without restriction at any stage. Overall, the level of replication in MDM was 5- to 10-fold greater than in monocytes, with restriction in the latter occurring mainly at entry and later stages of replication. Only three blood isolates were identified as syncytium inducing, and all had a dualtropic phenotype. There was a significant increase of HIV envelope gene diversity, as shown by a heteroduplex mobility assay, in advanced disease; this may partly underlie the increase of HIV replication in MDM. Unlike blood isolates (even those from patients with advanced disease), tissue isolates displayed greater similarities (90%) in productive infection between MDM and monocytes. The majority (87%) of all isolates, including those from patients with advanced disease, used CCR5, and only 5 of 37 isolates showed expanded coreceptor usage. These results indicate that in the late stage of disease with increasing viral load and diversity, CCR5 utilization and M-tropism persist in blood and tissue and the replicative ability in macrophages increases. This suggests that these characteristics are advantageous to HIV and are important to disease progression.
Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research
Choose a citation style from the tabs below