The personal disturbance scale (sAD): Normative date and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample

  • Henry J
  • Crawford J
  • Bedford A
 et al. 
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The Personal Disturbance Scale (sAD; A. Bedford & G. Foulds, 1978) is widely used in diverse settings and yet there are unresolved issues concerning its psychometric properties, and normative data for the English speaking version are limited. The sAD was administered to a large sample of the general adult population (N=758; aged 16-91 yrs). Demographic variables (gender, age, years of education and occupational status) had only very modest influences on sAD scores. Tables are presented for conversion of raw scores on the Anxiety, Depression and Total scales to percentiles. The sAD scales possessed adequate convergent and discriminant validity, as demonstrated by their pattern of correlations with two other measures of depression and anxiety (the DASS and the HADS). Ten competing models of the latent structure of the sAD were derived from theoretical and empirical sources. These models were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The best fitting model (CFI=0.96) had a tripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress/negative affectivity (all items loaded on this factor) plus orthogonal specific factors of anxiety and depression. Correlated errors specified according to previous empirical findings were permitted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Author-supplied keywords

  • - see front matter
  • 0191-8869
  • 02
  • 2002 published by elsevier
  • 44-1224-27227
  • 44-1224-273426
  • abdn
  • ac
  • corresponding author
  • d
  • e-mail address
  • fax
  • henry
  • j
  • mood disorders
  • psychometric properties
  • sad
  • science ltd
  • tel
  • tripartite model
  • uk
  • validity

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  • J D Henry

  • J R Crawford

  • A Bedford

  • C Crombie

  • E P Taylor

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