Genomics is the study of all nucleotide sequences, including structural genes, regulatory sequences and noncoding DNA segments, in the chromosomes of an organism. Radiogenomics focuses on the underlying genetic causes of cellular responses to radiation and its applications to radiation oncology practice. The purpose of this review is to introduce the technology behind radiogenomics and discuss how it may impact radiotherapy practice for practitioners. A literature search was conducted on PubMed using the key words genomics, genes, pharmacogenomics, radiogenomics, dose painting and dose sculpting. A review of the literature shows much promise for future radiation oncology health care practices. Current findings from radiogenomics research require much work in translational research via rigorous testing, evaluation and validation to corroborate data and research methodologies. This review consolidates the theoretical basis of radiogenomics research and discusses the considerations of genomics technology in the context of how it will impact radiotherapy practice. The promise of radiogenomics applications holds a future role in identifying tissue-specific radiation resistance and tolerance by identifying genes responsible for radiobiological response. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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