The Peruvian coastal upwelling ecosystem is part of an upwelling area that extends between 4°S and about 40°S along the western coast of South America (Guillén 1983), with high productivity originating from equatorial upwelling south of the Galapagos Islands. Peruvian coastal upwelling is peculiar because winds sustain the upwelling process throughout the year (Zuta and Guillén 1970) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle induces distinct interannual ecosystem variability. The coastal upwelling system, which hardly comprises 0.02% of the total ocean surface, is of great significance because it determines the enormous productivity of Peruvian coastal waters, representing almost 20% of the world’s landings of industrial fish.
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