Objectives: To provide a current profile of pharmacists' attitudes toward worklife and determine how demographic, family, and practice variables influence work attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Setting: Nationwide sample of licensed pharmacists in the United States. Participants: 1,737 actively practicing pharmacists. Interventions: Mailed survey. Main Outcome Measures: Previously validated rating scales were used to measure job satisfaction, job stress, work-home conflict, role overload, role ambiguity, and role conflict. Family variables included the number and age(s) of children and marital status; demographic variables included age, gender, race, years of experience, region, and degree; practice variables included setting, position, work status, and work activities. Results: Although 67.2% of pharmacists were satisfied with their job, more than 68% experienced job stress and role overload, and 48% experienced work-home conflict. The levels of role ambiguity, role conflict, and job stress were significantly higher in chain, mass merchandiser, and hospital settings relative to independent settings. Wanting to spend more time in consultation was most positively associated with role ambiguity, role overload, and role conflict and most negatively associated with job satisfaction. Gender, race, years of experience, marital status, and children also affected work attitudes. Conclusion: Those interested in the quality of worklife of pharmacists need to develop and implement realistic methods to decrease the role stress that pharmacists continue to face. Unless role stress of pharmacists is lessened, the profession may be endangering not only the physical and mental health of its current and future practitioners, but possibly compromising patient safety as well. Keywords: Pharmacists, worklife, stress, job satisfaction, work attitudes.
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