Pharmacokinetic profile of Ivermectin in cattle dung excretion, and its associated environmental hazard

  • Fernandez C
  • Andŕes M
  • Porce M
 et al. 
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Ivermectin is a worldwide used antiparasitic compound acting against both endo- and ecto parasites of livestock. Ivermectin can reach the environment through the direct emission of dung from livestock on pasture and via manure application on agricultural lands. Due to its very high acute toxicity to many invertebrates, especially to D. magna, the excretion profile of ivermectin in dung after application is essential for assessing its potential effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this article is to characterize the excretion profile, comparing plasma and dung levels, after a single subcutaneous dose to cattle, to be used in environmental risk assessment. The cumulative curve of excreted ivermectin was used to calculate the PEC dung in manure to be used as fertilizer. The potential hazard for dung fauna, aquatic and soil organism is presented through the combination of toxicity and excretion levels. Three hazard levels, offering the relevant information to veterinarians prescribing the drug, are presented.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Dung
  • ERA
  • Ivermectin
  • Pharmacokinetic
  • Plasma

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