Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices of antibiotics predicted by a semimechanistic PKPD model: A step toward model-based dose optimization

  • Nielsen E
  • Cars O
  • Friberg L
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Abstract

A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model that characterizes the full time course of in vitro time-kill curve experiments of antibacterial drugs was here evaluated in its capacity to predict the previously determined PK/PD indices. Six drugs (benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, gentamicin, moxifloxacin, and vancomycin), representing a broad selection of mechanisms of action and PK and PD characteristics, were investigated. For each drug, a dose fractionation study was simulated, using a wide range of total daily doses given as intermittent doses (dosing intervals of 4, 8, 12, or 24 h) or as a constant drug exposure. The time course of the drug concentration (PK model) as well as the bacterial response to drug exposure (in vitro PKPD model) was predicted. Nonlinear least-squares regression analyses determined the PK/PD index (the maximal unbound drug concentration [fC(max)]/MIC, the area under the unbound drug concentration-time curve [fAUC]/MIC, or the percentage of a 24-h time period that the unbound drug concentration exceeds the MIC [fT(>MIC)]) that was most predictive of the effect. The in silico predictions based on the in vitro PKPD model identified the previously determined PK/PD indices, with fT(>MIC) being the best predictor of the effect for β-lactams and fAUC/MIC being the best predictor for the four remaining evaluated drugs. The selection and magnitude of the PK/PD index were, however, shown to be sensitive to differences in PK in subpopulations, uncertainty in MICs, and investigated dosing intervals. In comparison with the use of the PK/PD indices, a model-based approach, where the full time course of effect can be predicted, has a lower sensitivity to study design and allows for PK differences in subpopulations to be considered directly. This study supports the use of PKPD models built from in vitro time-kill curves in the development of optimal dosing regimens for antibacterial drugs.

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Authors

  • Elisabet I. Nielsen

  • Otto Cars

  • Lena E. Friberg

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