PURPOSE: To describe oncolytic effects of treatment with anti-G(D2) monoclonal antibody 3F8 plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with neuroblastoma (NB).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were eligible for 3F8/GM-CSF if intensive therapy had not eradicated potentially lethal NB. One cycle consisted of GM-CSF (subcutaneous bolus) on days 1 through 5, 11, and 12, and GM-CSF (2-hour intravenous [IV] infusion) followed after a 1-hour interval by 3F8 (1.5-hour IV infusion) on days 6 through 10 and 13 through 17. GM-CSF was dosed at 250 microg/m(2)/d on days 1 through 7 and at 500 microg/m(2)/d on days 8 through 17. 3F8 was dosed at 10 mg/m(2)/d (100 mg/m(2)/cycle). 3F8 was given with an opiate and an antihistamine. Patients without progressive disease (PD) or elevated human antimouse antibody titers could be treated again beginning 3 weeks after completion of a cycle.
RESULTS: Among 19 patients treated for NB resistant to induction therapy, 12 of 15 had complete remission (CR) of bone marrow (BM) disease, and three others who had less than partial responses achieved prolonged progression-free survival (one remains on study at 21+ months, two had PD at 12 and 17 months). Among patients treated for recurrent NB resistant to retrieval therapy, five of 10 had CR in BM. The 15 patients treated for PD fared poorly, although two had scintigraphic findings suggestive of a short-term response. Side effects were limited to readily manageable pain and, less commonly, rash of short duration; hence, patients were treated as outpatients.
CONCLUSION: 3F8/GM-CSF is well tolerated and shows promise for treatment of minimal residual NB in BM.
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