This trial tested the hypothesis that combined androgen suppression (CAS) and whole-pelvic (WP) radiotherapy (RT) followed by a boost to the prostate improves progression-free survival (PFS) by 10% compared with CAS and prostate-only (PO) RT. This trial also tested the hypothesis that neoadjuvant and concurrent hormonal therapy (NCHT) improves PFS compared with adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT) by 10%.Eligibility included localized prostate cancer with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than or equal 100 ng/mL and an estimated risk of lymph node (LN) involvement of 15%. Between April 1, 1995, and June 1, 1999, 1,323 patients were accrued. Patients were randomly assigned to WP + NCHT, PO + NCHT, WP + AHT, or PO + AHT. Failure for PFS was defined as the first occurrence of local, regional, or distant disease; PSA failure; or death for any cause.With a median follow-up of 59.5 months, WP RT was associated with a 4-year PFS of 54% compared with 47% in patients treated with PO RT (P =.022). Patients treated with NCHT experienced a 4-year PFS of 52% versus 49% for AHT (P =.56). When comparing all four arms, there was a progression-free difference among WP RT + NCHT, PO RT + NCHT, WP RT + AHT, and PO RT + AHT (60% vs. 44% vs. 49% vs. 50%, respectively; P =.008). No survival advantage has yet been seen.WP RT + NCHT improves PFS compared with PO RT and NCHT or PO RT and AHT, and compared with WP RT + AHT in patients with a risk of LN involvement of 15%.
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