Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (oryza sativa l.) grains at four stages of development after flowering

  • Shao Y
  • Xu F
  • Sun X
 et al. 
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This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3- weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100 g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC. Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7 mg/100 g). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) were the main anthocyanins in black rice showing significantly higher levels at 2- and 3-weeks than at 1-week development and at maturity. At all stages, the phenolic acids existed mainly in the bound form as detected by HPLC and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Black rice (20.1-31.7 mg/100 g) had higher total bound phenolic acids than white rice and red rice (7.0-11.8 mg/100 g). Protocatechuic acid was detected in red rice and black rice with relatively high levels at 1-week development (1.41 mg/100 g) and at maturity (4.48 mg/100 g), respectively. Vanillic acid (2.4-5.4 mg/100 g) was detected only in black rice where it peaked at maturity. p-Coumaric acid (

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  • Rice grain development stages phenolics antioxidant capacity anthocyanins

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