Pheromonal communication is widespread in salamanders and newts and may also be important in some frogs and toads. Several amphibian pheromones have been behaviorally, biochemically and molecularly identified. These pheromones are typically peptides or proteins. Study of pheromone evolution in plethodontid salamanders has revealed that courtship pheromones have been subject to continual evolutionary change, perhaps as a result of co-evolution between the pheromonal ligand and its receptor. Pheromones are detected by the vomeronasal organ and main olfactory epithelium. Chemosensory neurons express vomeronasal receptors or olfactory receptors. Frogs have relatively large numbers of vomeronasal receptors that are transcribed in both the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory epithelium. Salamander vomeronasal receptors apparently are restricted to the vomeronasal organ. To date, no chemosensory ligands have been matched to vomeronasal receptors or olfactory receptors so it is unknown whether particular receptor types are (1) specialized for detection of pheromones versus other chemosignals, or (2) specialized for detection of volatile, nonvolatile, or water-borne chemosignals. Despite progress in understanding amphibian pheromonal communication, only a small fraction of amphibian species have been examined. Study of additional species of amphibians will indicate which traits related to pheromonal communication are evolutionarily conserved and which traits have diverged over time.
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