This chapter discusses historical development of logic in philosophy. The history of interfaces between logic and philosophy is rich and varied, especially when it is described through themes, rather than formal languages or system. Logic has played an important role in modern philosophy, especially, in alliances with philosophical schools such as the Vienna Circle, neo-positivism, or formal language variants of analytical philosophy. The original impact was via the work of Frege, Russell, and other pioneers, backed up by the prestige of research into the foundations of mathematics, which was fast bringing to light those amazing insights that still impress today. Throughout the centuries, there have been many changes in the agenda of logic, its interdisciplinary environment, and the guiding interests of its leading practitioners. The focus in this chapter is on logical form and natural logic, and it also gives details about generalized quantifier theory, co-existence of natural logic and formal logic, and conditional logic. Basic concepts related to nonmonotonic logic in AI, reasoning styles, and mechanisms of semantic interpretation are also explained in the chapter.
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