DNA sequences were determined for beta tubulin (BT2), calmodulin (CF), ITS and lsu rDNA (ID) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) from ca. 460 Aspergillus isolates. RPB2 and rDNA sequences were combined and analyzed to determine relationships in the genus and in the family Trichocomaceae. Eupenicillium species form a statistically supported clade with origins among the Aspergillus clades. A. crystallinus, A. malodoratus and H. paradoxus are members of the Eupenicillium clade. A. zonatus, A. clavatoflvus and W. spinulosa occur in a clade along with Hamigera sp. Other than these exceptional species, Aspergillus species and sections occur on three strongly supported clades that descend from a polytomy. Section Versicolores as a monophyletic group includes only A. versicolor and A. sydowii and is superfluous. The other sections were retained but modified. All four loci were used in genealogical concordance analysis of species boundaries. Fennellia flavipes and F. nivea are not conspecific with their supposed anamorphs A. flavipes and A. nivea. Synonymies were found for some species and more than 20 undescribed taxa were identified in genealogical concordance analysis. Newly discovered taxa will be described elsewhere. Possibly paralogous gene fragments were amplified with the BT2 primers in sections Nidulantes, Usti and Nigri. Use of nonhomologous sequences in genealogical concordance analysis could lead to false conclusions and so BT2 sequences were not used in analysis of those sections.
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