Phylogenetic analyses of data derived from one mitochondrial gene and one nuclear gene show that the five species of small marsupial frogs currently recognized as Flectonotus are in fact two distinct and not closely related lineages. This conclusion is strongly supported by reproductive behavior and morphological characters. Thus, we recognize the genus Fritziana Mello-Leitão for the three species in southeastern Brazil and Flectonotus Miranda-Ribeiro for the two species in northern South America.
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