Phylogenetic relationships within the Arvicolinae are examined based on two genes (mitochondrial cytb, nuclear GHR exon 10) and 296 morphological, developmental, behavioural, ecological and cytogenetic characters. To inspect the phylogenetic ‘behaviour’ of individual taxa, basic maximum-parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were accompanied by experiments based on different data-partition combinations, ‘slow–fast’ character weighting, and inclusion/exclusion of individual problematic taxa. Ellobius , Prometheomys and Lagurus are the most basal arvicolines; Dicrostonyx , Phenacomys and Arborimus form a clade (Dicrostonychini s.lat.); the ‘core arvicolines’ include three subclades: Lemmini ( Synaptomys , Lemmus , Myopus ), Clethrionomyini ( Eothenomys , Myodes ) and Arvicolini ( Arvicola , Chionomys , Stenocranius and Microtus , the last with six monophyletic subgenera: Alexandromys , ‘ Neodon ’, Mynomes , Lasiopodomys , Terricola , and Microtus s.str.). Position of Ondatra and Dinaromys is uncertain, probably com- promised by highly homoplastic morphological characters.
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