Phylogenetic analyses based on nuLSU and mtSSU indicate that Megasporaceae is monophyletic. Aspicilia species were distributed among three main well supported groups and one group with low support that included the type species; a division of the family into five genera is proposed. The old names Circinaria and Sagedia are reintroduced for groups not including A. cinerea, the type of Aspicilia. The monotypic Megaspora is closely related to Circinaria, while Lobothallia is the sister group of the other Megasporaceae genera. Aspicilia recedens and A. farinosa are transferred to Lobothallia. Species of the 'Sphaerothallia group' are nested in Circinaria. Aspilidea is not a member of Megasporaceae but seems to be more closely related to Ochrolechiaceae. Aspilidea myrinii is neotypified, and lectotypes are designated for Aspicilia gibbosa, A. leprosescens and Lecanora gibbosula.
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