Ying-Gui Dai and Jun-Xing Yang (2003) Phylogeny and zoogeography of the cyprinid hemicultrine group (Cyprinidae: Cultrinae). Zoological Studies 42(1): 73-92. The hemicultrine group consists of middle-sized cyprinids in Asia which taxonomically belong to the subfamily Cultrinae in the Cyprinidae (Cypriniformes), but there has been no convincing generic phylogenetic hypothesis proposal so far. On the basis of a morphological study of 65 specimens soaked in formalin and 14 skeletal specimens of 8 species in 6 genera within the hemicultrine group as an ingroup, a 70-character matrix was obtained. The generic phylogenetic relationships of the hemicultrine group are hypothesized with the matrix by the method of cladistic analysis. When the species Rasborinus lineatus or Cultrichthys erythropterus is used as the sole outgroup, the matrix gives the same single most-parsimonious tree of generic phylogenetic relationships within the hemicultrine group which shows that the hemicultrine group forms a monophyletic group. However, when Rasborinus lineatus is used as the sole outgroup and Cultrichthys erythropterus and Paralaubuca barroni are included in the ingroup, the hemicultrine group is validated to represent a paraphyletic group, and the hemicultrine group and the genus Paralaubuca form a monophyletic group. The tree of generic relationships and zoogeography of the monophyletic group comprising the hemicultrine group and the genus Paralaubuca suggest the following: (1) The monophyletic group comprises 2 smaller monophyletic groups: the genera Hemiculterella + Pseudohemiculter + Hainania and the genera Hemiculter + Paralaubuca + Pseudolaubuca + Toxabramis. (2) The sister groups of the monophyletic group show both overlapping and vicariant distribution patterns; therefore the generic distribution pattern of the monophyletic group maybe have resulted from both dispersal and vicariance events. (3) The monophyletic group probably originated on the Asian mainland from the Yangtze River to the Pearl River and on Hainan Island in China. (4) The monophyletic group probably originated after the Japanese Archipelago was separated from the Asian mainland at the beginning of the Quaternary Period in the Cenozoic but before Taiwan, Hainan Island, and Indonesia were completely isolated from the Asian mainland after the ice age in the Quaternary Period. (5) Speciation of the genus Hemiculter should have been the earliest, and those of the genera Paralaubuca, Pseudolaubuca, and Hainania ought to be the latest in the process of evolution of this monophyletic group. http://www.sinica.edu.tw/zool/zoolstud/42.1/73.pdf.
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