Physical examination of the ankle for ankle pathology

  • Lee T
  • Maleski R
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Injury to the ankle joint is very common, but the etiology of the ankle pain can be difficult to determine due to the complexity of the joint. Without a proper diagnosis, treatment is delayed or inappropiate which can lead to further ankle morbidty. This article is to assist foot and ankle specialists in making an accurate diagnosis of ankle pathology by showing how to perform a thorough ankle examination. Specific tests and examination techniques are described. No exact treatment plan to a particular diagnosis is given, but rather a general approach to treating ankle injuries is shown.

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  • Tara K. Lee

  • Richard Maleski

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