Physical limitations on antennas of arbitrary shape

  • Gustafsson M
  • Sohl C
  • Kristensson G
  • 34


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 152


    Citations of this article.


In this paper, physical limitations on bandwidth, realized gain, Q-factor and directivity are derived for antennas of arbitrary shape. The product of bandwidth and realizable gain is shown to be bounded from above by the eigenvalues of the long-wavelength, high-contrast polarizability dyadics. These dyadics are proportional to the antenna volume and are easily determined for an arbitrary geometry. Ellipsoidal antenna volumes are analysed in detail, and numerical results for some generic geometries are presented. The theory is verified against the classical Chu limitations for spherical geometries and shown to yield sharper bounds for the ratio of the directivity and the Q-factor for non-spherical geometries.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Antennas
  • Dispersion relation
  • Optical theorem
  • Physical limitations
  • Polarizability
  • Scattering cross-section

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Mats Gustafsson

  • Christian Sohl

  • Gerhard Kristensson

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free