Plants are attractive expression systems for the economic production of recombinant proteins. Among the different plant-based systems, plant seed is the leading platform and holds several advantages such as high protein yields and stable storage of target proteins. Significant advances in using seeds as bioreactors have occurred in the past decade, which include the first commercialized plant-derived recombinant protein. Here we review the current progress on seeds as bioreactors, with focus on the different food crops as production platforms and comprehensive strategies in optimizing recombinant protein production in seeds.
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