Platelets play a crucial role in the physiology of primary hemostasis and pathophysiologic processes such as arterial thrombosis. Accumulating evidence suggests a role of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in platelet activation. Here we show that platelets activated with different agonists produced intracellular ROSs, which were reduced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) oxidase inhibitors and superoxide scavengers. In addition, we demonstrate that ROSs produced in platelets significantly affected alphaIIbbeta3 integrin activation but not alpha and dense granule secretion and platelet shape change. Thrombin-induced integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation was significantly decreased after pretreatment of platelets with NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors (diphenylene iodonium [DPI] [45% +/- 9%] and apocynin [43% +/- 11%]) and superoxide scavengers (tiron [60% +/- 9%] and Mn(III)tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin [MnTMPyP] [70% +/- 6%]). These inhibitors also reduced platelet aggregation and thrombus formation on collagen under high shear and achieved their effects independent of the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) pathway.
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