Quantifying the extent to which seed production is limited by the availability of pollen has been an area of intensive empirical study over the past few decades. Whereas theory predicts that pollen augmentation should not increase seed production, numerous empirical studies report significant and strong pollen limitation. Here, we use a variety of approaches to examine the correlates of pollen limitation in an effort to understand its occurrence and importance in plant evolutionary ecology. In particular, we examine the role of recent ecological perturbations in influencing pollen limitation and discuss the relation between pollen limitation and plant traits. We find that the magnitude of pollen limitation observed in natural populations depends on both historical constraints and contemporary ecological factors.
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