Polyploids are organisms with three or more complete chromosome sets. Polyploidization is widespread in plants and animals, and is an important mechanism of speciation. Genome sequencing and related molecular systematics and bioinformatics studies on plants and animals in recent years support the view that species have been shaped by whole genome duplication during evolution. The stability of polyploids depends on rapid genome recombination and changes in gene expression after formation. The formation of polyploids and subsequent diploidization are important aspects in long-term evolution. Polyploids can be formed in various ways. Among them, hybrid organisms formed by distant hybridization could produce unreduced gametes and thus generate offspring with doubled chromosomes, which is a fast, efficient method of polyploidization. The formation of fertile polyploids not only promoted the interflow of genetic materials among species and enriched the species diversity, but also laid the foundation for polyploidy breeding. The study of polyploids has both important theoretical significance and valuable applications. The production and application of polyploidy breeding have brought remarkable economic and social benefits.
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