Density-independent and density-dependent, stochastic and deterministic, discrete-time, structured models are formulated, analysed and numerically simulated. A special case of the deterministic, density-independent, structured model is the well-known Leslie age-structured model. The stochastic, density-independent model is a multitype branching process. A review of linear, density-independent models is given first, then nonlinear, density-dependent models are discussed. In the linear, density-independent structured models, transitions between states are independent of time and state. Population extinction is determined by the dominant eigenvalue λ of the transition matrix. If λ ≤ 1, then extinction occurs with probability one in the stochastic and deterministic models. However, if λ > 1, then the deterministic model has exponential growth, but in the stochastic model there is a positive probability of extinction which depends on the fixed point of the system of probability generating functions. The linear, density-independent, stochastic model is generalized to a nonlinear, density-dependent one. The dependence on state is in terms of a weighted total population size. It is shown for small initial population sizes that the density-dependent, stochastic model can be approximated by the density-independent, stochastic model and thus, the extinction behavior exhibited by the linear model occurs in the nonlinear model. In the deterministic models there is a unique stable equilibrium. Given the population does not go extinct, it is shown that the stochastic model has a quasi-stationary distribution with mean close to the stable equilibrium, provided the population size is sufficiently large. For small values of the population size, complete extinction can be observed in the simulations. However, the persistence time increases rapidly with the population size. (C) 2000 Society for Mathematical Biology.
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