The purpose of this work was to determine the diversity and population fluctuations of calliphorid flies in the Biological Reserve of Tinguá (ReBio-Tinguá), Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and to correlate their occurrence with the environmental variables of temperature, rainfall and relative air humidity. Specimens of Diptera were collected monthly between June 2002 and January 2005 using four traps placed at four points along a trail and exposed for 48 hours. The traps were baited with sardines and the trapped insects were stored in 70% alcohol. It was collected 8,528 calliphorids, thirteen species were identified among the blowflies including Laneela nigripes Guimarães 1977, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), C. albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), C. putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Devoidy, 1830), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850), H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805), Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann,1819), L. cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830), Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969), Mesembrinella sp. and Eumesembrinella pauciseta (Aldrich, 1922). No significant correlation was found between the abundance of blowflies and the temperature and relative air humidity. Only C. megacephala and C. albiceps showed a positive and significant correlation with rainfall. An analysis of grouping by month (UPGMA) revealed no seasonal difference in the composition of the community, indicating that the community of calliphorid flies is probably more influenced by the ecological niches occupied by each species than by the seasons of the year.
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