Influenza is a common respiratory pathogen causing both seasonal and pandemic disease. Influenza infection predisposes the host to secondary bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, which is a major cause of both morbidity and mortality in flu-related disease. In this review, we will discuss innate and adaptive antiviral responses during influenza infection, and review how these responses modulate protective immunity against secondary bacterial pathogens of the lung. Specific emphasis will be placed on implications of bacterial superinfection and mechanisms involved.
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