Background. In contrast with many other countries, isoniazid preventative therapy is not recommended in clinical care guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with latent tuberculosis (TB) in India. Methods. Seven hundred fifteen HIV-infected mothers and their infants were prospectively followed up for 1 year after delivery at a public hospital in Pune, India. Women were evaluated for active TB during regular clinic visits, and tuberculin skin tests were performed. World Health Organization definitions for confirmed, probable, and presumed TB were used. Poisson regression was performed to determine correlates of incident TB, and adjusted probabilities of mortality were calculated. Results. Twenty-four of 715 HIV-infected women who were followed up for 480 postpartum person-years developed TB, yielding a TB incidence of 5.0 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-7.4 cases per 100 person-years). Predictors of incident TB included a baseline CD4 cell count 3 (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR], 7.58; 95% CI, 3.07-18.71), an HIV load >50,000 copies/mL (adjusted IRR, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.69-9.11), and a positive tuberculin skin test result (adjusted IRR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.27-7.47). Three (12.5%) of 24 women with TB died, compared with 7 (1.0%) of 691 women without TB (IRR, 12.2; 95% CI, 2.03-53.33). Among 23 viable infants with mothers with TB, 2 received a diagnosis of TB. Four infants with mothers with TB died, compared with 28 infants with mothers without TB (IRR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.19-13.57). Women with incident TB and their infants had a 2.2- and 3.4-fold increased probability of death, respectively, compared with women without active TB and their infants, controlling for factors independently associated with mortality (adjusted IRR, 2.2 [95% CI, 0.6-3.8] and 3.4 [95% CI, 1.22-10.59], respectively). Conclusions. Among Indian HIV-infected women, we found a high incidence of postpartum TB and associated postpartum maternal and infant death. Active screening and targeted use of isoniazid preventative therapy among HIV-infected women in India should be considered to prevent postpartum maternal TB and associated mother-to-child morbidity and mortality. 2007 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
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