With shrinking habitat, the humane control of certain wildlife populations is relevant. The contraceptive vaccine based on native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) has been applied to various wildlife populations for 20 years. Prominent efforts include wild horses, urban deer, zoo animals and African elephants, among others. This approach has been successful in managing entire populations and to date, no significant debilitating short- or long-term health effects have been documented. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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